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hanko

DEF Kinda Like 2 Cycle Oil Injection?

21 posts in this topic

I was reading the last issue of FMCA. The article about the new Winnebago tour said that it held 150 gal of fuel and 15 gal of DEF. So Where do you come up with 15 gal of DEF whenh on the road? Maybe ILL go back to the idea of buying a new gas burner. that sounds like a real pain in the ***

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The almighty has come to the rescue of the enviroment with Diesel Exhaust Fluid. Greatful I have 2002 400 ISL Cummins. Keep it serviced right and it is good to go.

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When did that start, I mean how far back to you have to go and have a DP that doesn't use DEF?

What is the ratio of DEF to a gallon of diesel, and how $ is it?

One would think that it could be mixed into the fuel.

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The price of DEF is listed on the Flying J website along with the price of their fuel. I believe it was $2.69 at the last Flying J.

It's not a fuel mixture so not a part of that setup and I have no idea how long a 15 gallon tank of this stuff will last.

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Hanko,

From what I've been told, for every 50 gallons of diesel fuel used, 1 gallon of DEF is burned off.

Mikie

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Gentlemen I believe I saw an article in the FMCA Mag. on this topic. Check out the archives. It is new in the last couple of years

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The best thing is a DP that doesn't require DEF. Our 2011 Monaco has the MaxxForce 10 by International that does not require DEF.

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I take it that all the *** a parts (Cummins) require the DEF fluid? Why cant they make it an additive. Anyone know just what engines do or don't require it?

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wig, Welcome to the Forum. Your Maxx Force 10 may not require the DEF but some Diesel Engine Mfg.s do requite the DEF.

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Correct. Navistar/MaxxForce choose to use high EGR and modified engine perimeters to control emissions to meet the much stiffer 2010 EPA standards.

Others like Cummins choose to run the engines more efficiently (improved HP and economy) and use a "catalytic converter" to clean up the exhaust-- just like we have had on gasoline engines since 1975.

The DEF has to be injected AFTER the engine, as it works in the converter. Burning it in the engine would not work.

Let's keep this in prospective: If you have a 15 gal DEF tank and get 8 miles per gallon, that will last you 15 gal times 50 gal diesel/gal DEF times 8 miles per gallon= 6,000 miles of driving on a tank of DEF. Then pull into a Flying J, etc and fill the tank. Your power and MPG will be improved over an engine that does not use DEF. It IS a trade-off-- more complexity and DEF vs not quite as good power/MPG.

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Sounds like a commercial for Cummins. While certainly not a scientific study, my conversations with owners of Monaco Knights with Cummins get about the same mileage as my MaxxForce. The torque rating for the MaxxForce is equal to or greater than the same horsepower Cummins and Cats that I've read about. Certainly the design of the engines are different, but I'm not convinced that this fact means that there is a significant loss of efficency as a result.

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If you want to compare fuel economy, you'll have to compare similar weight coaches, of the same year and power rating, similar driving styles and similar terrain and weather.

My coach has a 10 gallon DEF tank. I keep a 2.5 gallon container on board with me all the time. Somewhere between 1000 and 1200 miles the guage will indicate I'm down by 1/4 tank of DEF, I'll then dump that container into the DEF tank. This in not the major inconvenience the detractors have attempted to make it out to be. The next time I pull into a fuel stop that sells DEF at the island I can refill that container or, alternatively, I can purchase a new container full from Walmart for about $11 (it is less expensive to buy it at the fuel island).

At $2.69 per gallon, assuming 8 miles per gallon of fuel, DEF adds less than one penny cost per mile.

As an aside...

There is NO diesel smell coming out the tailpipe what so ever (I assume the Maxforce is the same). That makes us much more acceptable to the non-RVing public following us in traffic. :)

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If you want to compare fuel economy, you'll have to compare similar weight coaches, of the same year and power rating, similar driving styles and similar terrain and weather.

My coach has a 10 gallon DEF tank. I keep a 2.5 gallon container on board with me all the time. Somewhere between 1000 and 1200 miles the guage will indicate I'm down by 1/4 tank of DEF, I'll then dump that container into the DEF tank. This in not the major inconvenience the detractors have attempted to make it out to be. The next time I pull into a fuel stop that sells DEF at the island I can refill that container or, alternatively, I can purchase a new container full from Walmart for about $11 (it is less expensive to buy it at the fuel island).

At $2.69 per gallon, assuming 8 miles per gallon of fuel, DEF adds less than one penny cost per mile.

As an aside...

There is NO diesel smell coming out the tailpipe what so ever (I assume the Maxforce is the same). That makes us much more acceptable to the non-RVing public following us in traffic. :)

Well said! Also it is not harmful to the engine if by chance you should run out of DEF. You can still drive it and fill it up at next fuel stop etc. Least ways that is what I was told .

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I'd also like to keep this in ANOTHER perspective. I tried to attach a pdf file to read and for reference but my one page was to big so I cut and paste it below. Sorry for the formatting! If anyone would like a copy of the document just email me and I will forward to you.

DEF is used in another converter where it treats the exhaust before exiting the tail pipe. It is dosed PRESENTLY at 1% you can do your own calculations. The EPA is requiring even more stringent standards in 2013 (I believe) where the dosage will go to 2% per gallon of fuel.

Yes it has been used for years in Europe.

Yes it is just hunky dory for an automobile, truck or even an RV if you drive a lot of miles per year. But that is where the discussion begins.

Most people drive 5 to 8000 miles per year in their coach. If you fill the DEF tank it will take you 2 years 2 consume the DEF. But there is the problem FOR US. DEF will spoil if stored over 85 some degrees......I wonder if that could be a problem for those of us that spend multiple months in hot weather? Because if it spoils it triggers the computer to run the engine in a default mode max 50 mph and if you don't get the bad fluid out it will cripple the engine at 5 mph until you do. Of course the RV manufacturers did not take this into consideration so when you buy the new DEF RV be sure to see how difficult it is to remove the DEF tank as there is not a drain. The ones I looked at were a bear so keep that in mind. It also freezes so they have that figured out also by including ANOTHER heater in the DEF tank.

Store bought DEF at $14.00 for 2.5 gallons and has a 2 year lifespan if not opened. SOOOOOO after you calculate the amount of miles you are going to drive can you can figure the amount of DEF that is required so you effectively run out at the end of your trip. You could store it in the freezer or refrigerator if the DW does not mind. That will extend the life of it and will make sure it is not spoiled when you go to use it.

Flying J bulk storage may be cheaper but understand it is open to the air and can sit in hot temperatures degrading the material. See the reading material below.

Better mileage they claim, WELL I read a post from someone with a 2010 coach like mine (mine is an 2008 but same engine) that was getting exceptional mileage at almost 9 mpg. Of course people drive differently and maybe I would get better mileage if I drove his but I get routinely over 10 mpg sooooooooooooo I am not going to buy the "well it gets better fuel economy routine." I am tired of all the smoke that is generated on subjects to blow up our butts when the EPA wants us to swallow another pill. I am not saying that this whole idea is not good BUT I AM SAYING that as usual the engineers DID NOT think this all through. At least they could have provided a drain on the bottom of the stupid DEF tank but I GUESS that is asking too much.

Personally I am glad to hear some of the manufacturers are offering the Navastar engines if you request them. I was told that Tiffin (I did not confirm the info) would install a Maxforce engine on their house built frame assembly. And some others are doing the same but haven't seen the literature.

Sponsored by:

Contents

Executive Summary

Fleets, diesel vehicle owners and

truckstops are soon going to be introduced

to a product that aims to help clean the air of

harmful pollutants and may hold the promise

of increasing fuel mileage. Beginning in

2010, most new diesel-burning vehicles will

be outfitted with a pre-exhaust treatment

system that requires regular replenishment

by a specially prepared liquid called Diesel

Exhaust Fluid (DEF).

As this informational paper will describe,

DEF is derived from urea and requires

special dispensing equipment, employee

training and certification processes to

maintain purity. A full discussion of these

handling requirements will be accompanied

by details on how DEF will make its way to

market and projections of its future demand.

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid

Handling, Storage & Dispensing

Although urea is a widely produced chemical compound used

for years by the agriculture industry to infuse nitrogen into soil, the

term “diesel exhaust fluid” (DEF), a specific composition of urea for

application in transportation, only recently entered the lexicon of the

U.S. fleet industry with the advent of a particular type of clean exhaust

system called Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).

Since 2006, DEF (known as AdBlue in Europe) has been a

familiar product in Europe where strict limits on the amount of air

pollutants permitted from diesel exhaust have been in place longer

than in the U.S.

DEF will be required in most 2010 diesel vehicles in order to

replenish the clean exhaust systems using SCR. Because these

systems are sensitive and the material must remain pure, quality and

training are key concerns for anyone marketing or handling DEF.

Distribution networks and certification systems are being

established to meet the anticipated need for quality DEF through

truckstops and retail outlets and to accommodate a wide variety of

dispensing options.

This White Paper will provide a complete picture of DEF’s

history, the political background that’s driving demand, how it is

produced, distributed, safely handled, stored, dispensed and likely to

be priced. And it’ll indicate the future of DEF in the U.S., projecting

future demand for the product and characterizing its role in improving

fuel mileage in fleets and helping to clean the air.

A Service of

OPIS White Papers

whitepapers.opisnet.com

© 2009 OPIS

Chapter 1-Policy Drivers..................... 2-3

Chapter 2-The European Experience... 4

Chapter 3-Production........................... 4

Chapter 4-Quality................................. 5-7

Chapter 5-Storage Challenges.............. 7

Chapter 6-Distribution......................... 8

Chapter 7-Dispensing........................... 9-10

Chapter 8-Retailing.............................. 11-12

About the Sponsors.............................. 13

Chapter 1-Policy Drivers

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 2

Clean Air Act

EPA’s mission is to protect human health

and the environment. To achieve this mission,

EPA implements a variety of programs

under the Clean Air Act that focus on:

* reducing outdoor, or ambient,

concentrations of air pollutants that

cause smog, haze, acid rain, and

other problems;

* reducing emissions of toxic air

pollutants that are known to, or are

suspected of, causing cancer or other

serious health effects; and

* phasing out production and use of

chemicals that destroy stratospheric

ozone.

These pollutants come from stationary

sources (like chemical plants, gas stations,

and powerplants) and mobile sources (like

cars, trucks, and planes).

In 1990, Congress passed and President George H.W. Bush

signed amendments to the Clean Air Act that directed the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate air pollutants from a

variety of industrial and commercial sources including motor vehicles.

Among the air pollutants EPA regulates under the authority

of the Clean Air Act are particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides

(NOx), byproducts of diesel exhaust that are precursors to smog. PM

has been linked to higher incidences of childhood asthma, among other

health hazards. The more sulfur motor fuel contains, the more PM it

produces when burned. NOx is produced during the process of hightemperature

combustion such as is present in a motor vehicle engine,

and can react with sunlight along with volatile organic compounds to

form smog.

The regulatory instrument by which EPA regulates PM under

CAA authority is the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

(NAAQS). It sets a PM maximum limit of 10 micrometers in air samples

taken over a 24-hour period (PM10). Five other criteria air contaminants

are regulated under NAAQS: lead, nitrogen oxide (NOx),

sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone. The agency set its Tier 2

tailpipe emissions limits on these six criteria contaminants.

In order to meet the PM10 and NOx limits on diesel exhaust

under Tier 2, EPA gave engine manufacturers the choice of which

technology platform they’d like to adopt in order to cut emissions of

PM and NOx from their vehicle exhaust systems. The three technologies

that emerged were SCR, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and

Lean NOx Trap. By fall of 2008, most had chosen SCR. Navistar/International

was the notable exception, choosing to instead deploy EGR

throughout its 2010 model trucks.

Chapter 1-Policy Drivers (cont.)

Exhaust treatment systems work hand in hand with reductions

in the amount of sulfur in diesel fuel to reduce PM and NOx. As of

2006, all diesel fuel for on-road use in the U.S. must contain no more

than 15 parts-per-million (ppm) of sulfur. This super-clean diesel fuel

is known as Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD).

Large-scale SCR systems are used at some coal-fired power

generation plants to reduce NOx emissions.

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 3

Key Acronyms

DEF Diesel Exhaust Fluid

SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

CAA Clean Air Act

PM particulate matter

NOx Nitrogen Oxides

NAAQS National Ambient

Air Quality Standards

EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation

PPM parts per million

ULSD Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel

ISO International Organization of

Standardization

AUS aqueous urea solution

COA Certificate of Assurance

API American Petroleum Institute

Companies that have adopted SCR

and EGR.

SCR

Volvo

Detroit Diesel

Cummins

PACCAR

Mack

Daimler

Mercedes Benz

EGR

Navistar/International

Chapter 2-The European Experience

Chapter 3-Production

Starting in the early 1990s, the European Union (EU) member

states began to ratchet down the amount of sulfur allowed in motor

fuel and the amount of NOx that could be emitted from exhaust systems.

Adoption of pre-exhaust treatment systems such as SCR began

in 2006. As a result, operators of EU fleets have had a two-year headstart

using DEF to replenish their SCR systems.

In Europe, original equipment manufacturers use the trademark

term AdBlue to describe automotive-grade DEF.

Although initially AdBlue supply chain integration costs were

high, operational efficiencies quickly came into play and prices

became more economical.

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 4

The U.S. and Canada are net importers of agricultural grade

urea, largely distributed by barge. However, DEF will largely be

sourced from domestic facilities which are already established in North

America. A single Anhydrous Ammonia/urea/DEF plant costs approximately

$2 billion to build from the ground up so it is unlikely that new

plants will be coming on line to supply the U.S. truck fleet.

Since product quality is paramount for DEF, production needs

to be close to its target market to cut down on aging and/or

contamination concerns.

To make DEF:

Step 1 - Producers start with natural gas as a feedstock.

Step 2 - They then synthesize that into ammonia and CO2,

“cracking” and reforming it just as refiners would gasoline or

diesel out of crude oil.

Step 3 - Ammonia is coupled with CO2 to form urea.

Step 4 - The urea is then blended with very pure, deionized water

to make a 32.5% solution of urea (the remainder is water).

Chapter 4-Quality

The DEF production process is done to ISO-22241 standards

and best produced under very strict protocols, such that automotivegrade

DEF certified product meets or exceeds the ISO-22241 standard.

Producers then issue a Certificate of Analysis (COA) that guarantees

the quality of the DEF down to the minutest detail. Without the

COA, the solution is only industrial-grade urea.

Certified laboratories will check for the DEF’s purity and concentration

and monitor all of the specific elements within the product

needed to maintain quality.

Two specific quality issues can arise unless the strictest guidelines

are adhered to:

• Purity – product impurities can detrimentally affect the after-treatment

systems’ performance and void vehicle warranty guarantees

due to premature catalyst deactivation and/or fouling of prefilters

and injector nozzles, to identify a few.

• Concentration – delivering the right amount of urea to the exhaust

stream is critical to ensure the vehicle meets the tailpipe emissions

target required by EPA’s Tier 2 standards.

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 5

Chapter 4-Quality (cont.)

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 6

The ISO-22241 specification is very strict and rules out the use

of agricultural and industrial grade urea as a substitute for DEF. Also,

the presence of formaldehyde found in most urea renders it unfit for

DEF production.

ISO-22241 also governs the integrity of DEF through the supply

chain. Purity and concentration must be maintained to the vehicle

and through the dispensing equipment, storage and handling, including

any small packaging for DEF. Supply-chain partners must undergo a

rigorous process to handle the fluid properly.

The American Petroleum Institute (API) will certify DEF and

will provide labels for DEF containers indicating the product is certified.

Those labels are being drafted by the SCR Stakeholders Group.

Certification is likely to include some quality assurance training for

supply chain partners including retailers. Samples can be pulled

anywhere in the supply chain to ensure DEF with the API label meets

the stringent quality requirements.

Contrary to some beliefs, DEF is not an additive, and is not

mixed with diesel fuel. In a vehicle outfitted with an SCR system, DEF

has a separate on-board tank (6-10 gallons on light-duty vehicles;

10-30 gallons on heavy-duty vehicles).

From its storage tank, DEF is pumped through a filter and

injector and then, into the exhaust stream. Injectors are very sensitive,

making purity extremely important, as any un-dissolved material may

clog filters or injectors. Additionally, dissolved material can result in

premature SCR catalyst failure.

Filters in the SCR system must function for at least a minimum

amount of time in order to meet EPA’s Tier 2 specifications. Premature

failure will activate the on-board vehicle diagnostics systems,

dramatically reducing vehicle performance.

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 7

Sensors in DEF tanks will notify the driver if volume is low or

if the product concentration is not of good quality. Another sensor will

indicate if the NOx level in the tailpipe exhaust is too high. These

sensors will need to be maintained by fleet owners.

In the aftertreatment system, the heat from the exhaust hydrolyzes

the urea into two components: anhydrous ammonia and CO2.

This gas mixture of ammonia and NOx passes across the catalyst and

reduces them to elemental nitrogen and water, harmless since air is

composed of 78% elemental nitrogen. The additional CO2 emitted due

to urea decomposition is offset by enhanced fuel economy. A gallon of

diesel emits 10 times more CO2 than a gallon of DEF.

Chapter 4-Quality (cont.)

Chapter 5-Storage Challenges

A key specification in the ISO-22241 standard is the DEF

product’s urea concentration.

To ensure product stability, DEF producers, buyers, retailers

and users should store the fluid at temperatures between 12°F-86°F

(10°C-30°C). Doing so ensures a DEF shelf-life of at least one (1)

year. Storage temperatures higher than 86°F will detrimentally affect

urea concentration and below 12 ° F, DEF will begin to crystallize.

Both of these circumstances could render the product out of specification

and unfit for sale.

It is generally accepted that DEF will have a 1-year shelf-life

if stored between 86°F (30°C) and 12° F (-11 ° C). If it is stored at

temperatures above 86°F (30°C), the shelf-life will be reduced.

Chapter 6-Distribution

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 8

DEF will at least initially come into the fleet marketplace

through truckstops along interstate routes and through truck terminals.

Although DEF production is centered East of the Rockies,

there are plans to transload DEF by rail to the West Coast as needed.

Eventually, product could be transported in higher concentrations and

then diluted in regions that are farther away from production facilities

if quality can be maintained.

Urea-based reductants are already being sold and distributed

across North America, for NOx reductions in stationary SCR applications.

A key to distribution across the country will be the movement of

urea products to terminal locations in most metropolitan cities. Like in

Europe, existing, large chemical distribution facilities will act as these

terminal locations.

Facilities already exist which are ISO certified, have

massive liquid storage capacity, blending, rail, and their own fleet of

tanker trucks. Urea products for other markets are already being distributed

through these facilities.

Fuel oil distributors will likely vend DEF in bulk tanker and

mini-bulk quantities. The 275-gallon tote can be put into a “cupboard”

at a fuel island and hooked to a dispensing pump for retail at service

locations. Major pump equipment manufacturers have developed

pump-island DEF dispensers.

The primary distribution point will be chemical distribution

companies which will provide DEF in bulk tanker and mini-bulk quantities.

This is the model in Europe where chemical distributors have

compatible assets such as stainless tankers. Fuel oil distributors will

supplement the distribution chain in select markets and geographical

areas.

Chapter 7-Dispensing

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 9

Different pack sizes and configurations are being designed and

range from small bottles, to totes and drums to bulk dispensers. Typical

configurations include 275-gallon totes, 55-gallon drums, 2.5 gallon

bottles, 2.0-gallon bottles and 1-gallon bottles. High-density polyethylene

can be used in bottle packages but larger containers should be

stainless steel or other ISO 22241-approved materials in order to avoid

contamination.

Engine makers plan to dose DEF at a rate of 2%, or 2-gallons

of DEF for every 100-gallons of diesel fuel. A heavy-duty truck with

an average fuel economy of 6 MPG could travel 600 miles on that

same 100-gallons of diesel fuel. That same trip would therefore only

take around 2-gallons of DEF. That would give the truck a reasonable

number of miles to get to a larger DEF dispensing facility to refill.

Fuel oil distributors will likely vend DEF in bulk tanker and

mini-bulk quantities. The 275-gallon tote and mini-bulk tanks (up to

a few thousand gallons) can be put into a “cupboard” at a fuel island

and hooked to a dispensing pump for retail at service locations. Major

pump equipment manufacturers have developed pump-island DEF

dispensers.

These can be hooked up to either above-ground or belowground

DEF tanks. However, the product does need to be heated if it

is stored above-ground because it will crystallize at 12°F (-11°C) or

about the same temperature as diesel.

Chapter 7-Dispensing (cont.)

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 10

For smaller locations and service bays, smaller dispensing

equipment may be appropriate. There will be stand-alone units of

1,000 to 2,000 gal for retail installation. That will be tied to the companies

POS (Point of Sale) technology, making the transaction part of the

overall sales experience.

This dispensing equipment may be in line with existing fuel

island or stand-alone units. This equipment will provide fueling from

diesel type dispensers, and special nozzles are being considered to

prevent the possibility of introducing DEF into the diesel tank.

Chapter 8-Retailing

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 11

Potential markets for DEF include heavy and medium-duty

vehicles as well as light-duty vehicles. For heavy-duty and mediumduty

vehicles, DEF demand will be filled like fuel is: through bulk

dispensers. A typical vehicle in this class should consume more than

500 gal/year and about 90-95% of DEF sales will come from this class

of vehicle. On-board DEF tanks typically have a volume of 20-30 gallons.

Light-duty vehicles will have demand filled like a lubricant: in

gallon packs. A typical vehicle would consume about nine gal/year and

the market-share of this class is likely to range from 5-10%. Service

intervals may be synchronized with oil change cycles. Vehicle owners

can add their own DEF much like they would top off their windshield

wiper fluid.

Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard increases may drive

more light-duty vehicle manufacturers to pursue a more aggressive

SCR rollout in order to take advantage of the greater fuel economy

offered by these clean exhaust systems.

Off-highway vehicles will need to meet EPA Tier 2 tailpipe

emission standards by 2014. Additional demand from retrofitted diesel

vehicles is expected to emerge as well.

Annual DEF volumes could reach more than 725 million gallons

by 2015 at current fleet turnover rates, according to the Engine

Manufacturers Association. It conducted a survey based on input from

all major engine makers based on engine sales forecasts, vehicle miles

traveled and dosing rates (2-4% of diesel fuel volumes).

North American

SCR Stakeholders Group

Participating Organizations

August 2008

AGCO Parts Division

Agriliance

Agrium

AirBlueFluids, Inc.

Alliance

Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

AluMag Automotive LLC

American Automobile Association

American Petroleum Institute

American Trucking Associations (ATA)

Ashland/Valvoline

Association of International Automobile

Manufacturers

Automotive Aftermarket Industry

Association

Automotive Association of America (AAA)

Balcrank Products Inc.

Benecor

Blue1

BMW of North America, Inc.

BP America

Brenntag North America

Caterpillar

Cervantes-Delgado Inc.

CF Industries Inc.

Chevron

Chrysler LLC

CHS Inc

Clean Emission Fluids

Colonial Chemical

ConocoPhillips

Cummins Inc.

Daimler AG

Daimler Trucks North America

Dale Kardos & Associates, LLC

Detroit Diesel Corporation

Diesel Technology Forum

Dresser Wayne

Dureal

Dyno Nobel

Engine Manufacturers Association

Excelda

ExxonMobil

EZ Fuel

(Cont. on next page)

Chapter 8-Retailing (cont.)

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 12

Essentially, 80% of diesel vehicle production in 2010 will

feature SCR technology, requiring DEF.

DEF prices are likely to be above $3/gal at least initially until

operational efficiencies in the supply chain and increased volume of

DEF product moved begin to have an effect on price. Smaller containers

may cost more if they are sold as convenience items.

Eventually, access should become as easy as fuel or motor oil is today.

Engine makers have projected fuel economy increases of about

3% but depending on DEF price and dosing rates, that economic

benefit might be mitigated in real-world application.

However, the environmental benefits of SCR systems using

DEF are accepted as a state-of-the-art technology response to EPA’s

clean air regulations and ensure demand for quality DEF is here to

stay.

Flying J Travel Plazas

Ford Motor Company

Freightliner Trucks

Garden State Analytix

General Motors Corporation

Gilbarco Veeder-Root, Inc.

Greenchem-Adblue

Hino Motors Ltd.

Hino Motors Sales, U.S.A, Inc.

Honda

Honda North America Inc

Industrial Solution Services, Inc.

Integer Research

North American SCR Stakeholders 3

International Truck & Engine Co.

Isuzu Manufacturing Services

of America, Inc.

Isuzu Motors Limited

John Deere

Kelley Drye Collier Shannon

(representing PMAA)

Koch Industries

Koch Nitrogen - Industrial Marketing

Kruse KG

Love’s Travel Stops and Country Stores

Mack Trucks, Inc.

Magna Steyr

Manufacturers of Emission Controls

Association

Mazda North American Operations

Mercedes-Benz USA (Cars)

Mitsubishi Motors R&D of America

Mitsui Mining & Smelting

National Association of Convenience

Stores

National Association of Truck Stop

Owners

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

- US DOE Office of Energy

Efficiency & Renewable Energy

New England Fuel Institute

Nissan

Oscar W. Larson Company

PACCAR

Petroleum Marketers of America

Association (PMAA)

Petro Stopping Centers

Pilot Travel Centers

Porsche Cars of North America, Inc.

Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc.

Quixote Group

Rehau

Renault

Robert Bosch LLC

R. W. Mercer Company

Ryder System, Inc.

Shell

Shell Europe

Shell Lubricants - Fast Lubes

SKF

Society of Independent Gas

Marketers of America (SIGMA)

Subaru of America, Inc.

Terra Industries Inc.

The Andersons, Inc.

The Fertilizer Institute

Toyota Motor North America, Inc.

Toyota Technical Center USA, Inc.

Travel Centers of America

Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Valvoline

Venture Point Research

Volkswagen of America, Inc.

Volvo Mack

Volvo Powertrain

Volvo Trucks North America

Yara International ASA

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 13

About Brenntag

Brenntag recorded global 2007 sales of EUR 6.7 billion (USD 9.1 billion). Today the company operates in excess

of 300 locations with more than 11,000 people in 64 countries. In keeping with the company’s strong

position in world markets, Brenntag is committed to providing value to its customers and suppliers through

superior supply chain logistics, single sourcing, technical assistance and other value added services.

Brenntag offers an unrivalled, extensive and state-of-the-art distribution network for industrial and specialty

chemicals to its suppliers and customers alike throughout the United States and the world.

Brenntag

Alan Smith, Manager, Business Development

248 760 7912

Asmith@brenntag.com

About Southern Pump & Tank Company

Southern Pump & Tank Company began operations in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1935 as a distributor and

installer of petroleum equipment. The company quickly expanded into other cities in North and South Carolina

and eventually Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Florida and Virginia. Recognizing the value of its franchise and

its dominant market share in petroleum handling equipment, the Company entered the industrial pump

distribution business in the late 1960’s concentrating in North and South Carolina and Eastern Tennessee.

With the new millennium, Southern Pump & Tank continued its leadership position in liquid handling and

completing a dominant offering of quality products, turnkey services, and exceptionally experienced people.

For over 70 years we have provided a complete assortment of equipment and services for the handling of

petroleum products. We offer turnkey development for any petroleum project, including retail outlets and

wholesale bulk plants. Our unmatched service will keep you pumping long after.

Southern Pump and Tank Company

Steve Childers, General Manager

704 596 4373

Steve.childers@southernpump.com

About Terra Environmental Technologies (TET)

Terra Industries Inc. (NYSE: TRA), with 2007 revenues of $2.4 billion, is a leading international producer of

nitrogen products. Terra Industries Inc. formed TET in 2003 to provide products and services to customers using

nitrogen products to reduce NOx emissions from various sources, including power plants and in other environmental

processes such as water treatment plants. TET was incorporated in December 2007.

Terra Environmental Technologies

John Beumler, Manager, Account Development

712 293 4610

Jbeumler@terraindustries.com

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A couple of items to note:

Every Pilot or Flying J will have DEF, but not every one has it at the pump. A box of DEF will run about $15 for 2.5 gallons, but pump delivery is (currently) under $3/gallon. The myPilot app (or the website www.pilotflyingj.com) will tell you which Pilot/Flying J has DEF at the pump and what the price is.

The DEF pumps are arranged for the 18-wheelers, with the tanks on the driver's side near the front. I have to go through the pump bays backwards in my Itasca, and I have to move it after fueling, because the DEF tank is in the rear on the passenger's side. (I like the idea of a two-gallon gas can for the DEF, but there's no place to store it. I feel a mod coming on!) I suppose that I could get DEF from the adjacent pump if they weren't too busy.

I was told (but I have not verified) that a running diesel engine will continue to run when the DEF tank goes empty, and the the engine will start two more times. This allows you to get to the filling station, and if that station has no DEF you can get to the next station. After that the engine is interlocked not to start. I don't know if it's true, and I don't intend to test it!

I'm getting about 500 miles per DEF gallon.

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Herman Mullins: It was in the administration of the previous almighty when the new EPA rules were mandated.

Moisheh

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Just traded an 05, 38', 28,000 lb Travel Supreme w/350 cat w/ turbo. Now have a 2013 40' HR 32,000lbs w/350 MaxForce 10 w/turbo. TS averaged 7mpg towing an 11 Edge. Have 1100 miles on the HR and averaging just under 9 mpg towing the same Edge. Power fells pretty much the same, even with higher load.

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I happened to take the Tiffin Factory tour yesterday. They use a MaxForce7 in the Allegro Breeze (28 and 32') which is mounted on their own chassis. Their larger models use Cummings 340HP and up with DEF. The tanks are on the passenger side which makes fill at Flying J problematic since the DEF dispenser is on the driver side when pulling in. They are trying to redesign this but the 2013s all have it on the wrong side.

I plan to carry a fresh DEF sealed container and keep the DEF in the coach reasonably fresh. It gets really hot in the summer here. Now if I can figure how to add a drain to the tank....

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I don’t have an engine that requires DEF but I do have an
ISL 400 in a 2008 Travel Supreme.

With the talk about the costs of DEF I thought I’d share my
experience. Last August the particulate filter plugged and
the engine went into “tow” mode, had it towed 90 miles to a Cummins shop where
they replaced the particulate filter, since warranty doesn’t cover filters it
cost $2775 to fix, not including the tow (glad we have CoachNet).

This was at 82,350 miles on it.

So if you look at the cost of DEF over 82,000 miles compared
to replacing the particulate filter DEF doesn’t seem too bad per mile.

I wish we didn’t have to worry about either. I’m not saying one
is better than the other just $$ per $$ DEF doesn’t seem so bad.

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