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DEF Kinda Like 2 Cycle Oil Injection?


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20 replies to this topic

#1 hanko

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 02:44 PM

I was reading the last issue of FMCA. The article about the new Winnebago tour said that it held 150 gal of fuel and 15 gal of DEF. So Where do you come up with 15 gal of DEF whenh on the road? Maybe ILL go back to the idea of buying a new gas burner. that sounds like a real pain in the ***
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#2 wolfe10

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 03:25 PM

DEF is available in most truck stops, at Walmart, etc.

Here is a list of the Flying J's with DEF right at the diesel pumps: http://pilotflyingj.com/pump-def

Brett
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#3 hermanmullins

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 04:23 PM

The almighty has come to the rescue of the enviroment with Diesel Exhaust Fluid. Greatful I have 2002 400 ISL Cummins. Keep it serviced right and it is good to go.
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#4 hanko

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 08:30 PM

When did that start, I mean how far back to you have to go and have a DP that doesn't use DEF?

What is the ratio of DEF to a gallon of diesel, and how $ is it?

One would think that it could be mixed into the fuel.
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#5 Guest_BillAdams_*

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 08:47 PM

The price of DEF is listed on the Flying J website along with the price of their fuel. I believe it was $2.69 at the last Flying J.
It's not a fuel mixture so not a part of that setup and I have no idea how long a 15 gallon tank of this stuff will last.

#6 mjrij

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 09:44 PM

Hanko,
From what I've been told, for every 50 gallons of diesel fuel used, 1 gallon of DEF is burned off.
Mikie
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#7 hermanmullins

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Posted 04 February 2012 - 10:02 PM

Gentlemen I believe I saw an article in the FMCA Mag. on this topic. Check out the archives. It is new in the last couple of years
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"Fair winds and Following Seas"

Herman & Bobbie Mullins, F302225
Whitewright, TEXAS
'02 Monaco Dynasty, 40-foot 400 HP ISL
Chevrolet Silverado (M & G air brakes)
U.S. Navy PR-3 1956 to 1964

Southern Region Vice President for Six-State Rally Association
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South Central Lucky Rollers
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#8 wigginsjsr

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Posted 05 February 2012 - 12:24 AM

The best thing is a DP that doesn't require DEF. Our 2011 Monaco has the MaxxForce 10 by International that does not require DEF.
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#9 hanko

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Posted 05 February 2012 - 10:00 AM

I take it that all the *** a parts (Cummins) require the DEF fluid? Why cant they make it an additive. Anyone know just what engines do or don't require it?
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#10 hermanmullins

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Posted 05 February 2012 - 10:10 AM

wig, Welcome to the Forum. Your Maxx Force 10 may not require the DEF but some Diesel Engine Mfg.s do requite the DEF.
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"Fair winds and Following Seas"

Herman & Bobbie Mullins, F302225
Whitewright, TEXAS
'02 Monaco Dynasty, 40-foot 400 HP ISL
Chevrolet Silverado (M & G air brakes)
U.S. Navy PR-3 1956 to 1964

Southern Region Vice President for Six-State Rally Association
Lone Star Chapter FMCA Past President
South Central Lucky Rollers
Rally in The Pasture


#11 wolfe10

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Posted 05 February 2012 - 11:16 AM

Correct. Navistar/MaxxForce choose to use high EGR and modified engine perimeters to control emissions to meet the much stiffer 2010 EPA standards.

Others like Cummins choose to run the engines more efficiently (improved HP and economy) and use a "catalytic converter" to clean up the exhaust-- just like we have had on gasoline engines since 1975.

The DEF has to be injected AFTER the engine, as it works in the converter. Burning it in the engine would not work.

Let's keep this in prospective: If you have a 15 gal DEF tank and get 8 miles per gallon, that will last you 15 gal times 50 gal diesel/gal DEF times 8 miles per gallon= 6,000 miles of driving on a tank of DEF. Then pull into a Flying J, etc and fill the tank. Your power and MPG will be improved over an engine that does not use DEF. It IS a trade-off-- more complexity and DEF vs not quite as good power/MPG.
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#12 wigginsjsr

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Posted 16 February 2012 - 11:38 PM

Sounds like a commercial for Cummins. While certainly not a scientific study, my conversations with owners of Monaco Knights with Cummins get about the same mileage as my MaxxForce. The torque rating for the MaxxForce is equal to or greater than the same horsepower Cummins and Cats that I've read about. Certainly the design of the engines are different, but I'm not convinced that this fact means that there is a significant loss of efficency as a result.
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#13 JMonroe

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Posted 17 February 2012 - 10:00 AM

If you want to compare fuel economy, you'll have to compare similar weight coaches, of the same year and power rating, similar driving styles and similar terrain and weather.
My coach has a 10 gallon DEF tank. I keep a 2.5 gallon container on board with me all the time. Somewhere between 1000 and 1200 miles the guage will indicate I'm down by 1/4 tank of DEF, I'll then dump that container into the DEF tank. This in not the major inconvenience the detractors have attempted to make it out to be. The next time I pull into a fuel stop that sells DEF at the island I can refill that container or, alternatively, I can purchase a new container full from Walmart for about $11 (it is less expensive to buy it at the fuel island).
At $2.69 per gallon, assuming 8 miles per gallon of fuel, DEF adds less than one penny cost per mile.
As an aside...
There is NO diesel smell coming out the tailpipe what so ever (I assume the Maxforce is the same). That makes us much more acceptable to the non-RVing public following us in traffic. :)
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#14 TBWhit

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Posted 20 February 2012 - 09:04 AM

If you want to compare fuel economy, you'll have to compare similar weight coaches, of the same year and power rating, similar driving styles and similar terrain and weather.
My coach has a 10 gallon DEF tank. I keep a 2.5 gallon container on board with me all the time. Somewhere between 1000 and 1200 miles the guage will indicate I'm down by 1/4 tank of DEF, I'll then dump that container into the DEF tank. This in not the major inconvenience the detractors have attempted to make it out to be. The next time I pull into a fuel stop that sells DEF at the island I can refill that container or, alternatively, I can purchase a new container full from Walmart for about $11 (it is less expensive to buy it at the fuel island).
At $2.69 per gallon, assuming 8 miles per gallon of fuel, DEF adds less than one penny cost per mile.
As an aside...
There is NO diesel smell coming out the tailpipe what so ever (I assume the Maxforce is the same). That makes us much more acceptable to the non-RVing public following us in traffic. :)

Well said! Also it is not harmful to the engine if by chance you should run out of DEF. You can still drive it and fill it up at next fuel stop etc. Least ways that is what I was told .
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#15 dmccanna

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Posted 03 April 2012 - 04:10 PM

I'd also like to keep this in ANOTHER perspective. I tried to attach a pdf file to read and for reference but my one page was to big so I cut and paste it below. Sorry for the formatting! If anyone would like a copy of the document just email me and I will forward to you.

DEF is used in another converter where it treats the exhaust before exiting the tail pipe. It is dosed PRESENTLY at 1% you can do your own calculations. The EPA is requiring even more stringent standards in 2013 (I believe) where the dosage will go to 2% per gallon of fuel.

Yes it has been used for years in Europe.
Yes it is just hunky dory for an automobile, truck or even an RV if you drive a lot of miles per year. But that is where the discussion begins.

Most people drive 5 to 8000 miles per year in their coach. If you fill the DEF tank it will take you 2 years 2 consume the DEF. But there is the problem FOR US. DEF will spoil if stored over 85 some degrees......I wonder if that could be a problem for those of us that spend multiple months in hot weather? Because if it spoils it triggers the computer to run the engine in a default mode max 50 mph and if you don't get the bad fluid out it will cripple the engine at 5 mph until you do. Of course the RV manufacturers did not take this into consideration so when you buy the new DEF RV be sure to see how difficult it is to remove the DEF tank as there is not a drain. The ones I looked at were a bear so keep that in mind. It also freezes so they have that figured out also by including ANOTHER heater in the DEF tank.

Store bought DEF at $14.00 for 2.5 gallons and has a 2 year lifespan if not opened. SOOOOOO after you calculate the amount of miles you are going to drive can you can figure the amount of DEF that is required so you effectively run out at the end of your trip. You could store it in the freezer or refrigerator if the DW does not mind. That will extend the life of it and will make sure it is not spoiled when you go to use it.

Flying J bulk storage may be cheaper but understand it is open to the air and can sit in hot temperatures degrading the material. See the reading material below.

Better mileage they claim, WELL I read a post from someone with a 2010 coach like mine (mine is an 2008 but same engine) that was getting exceptional mileage at almost 9 mpg. Of course people drive differently and maybe I would get better mileage if I drove his but I get routinely over 10 mpg sooooooooooooo I am not going to buy the "well it gets better fuel economy routine." I am tired of all the smoke that is generated on subjects to blow up our butts when the EPA wants us to swallow another pill. I am not saying that this whole idea is not good BUT I AM SAYING that as usual the engineers DID NOT think this all through. At least they could have provided a drain on the bottom of the stupid DEF tank but I GUESS that is asking too much.

Personally I am glad to hear some of the manufacturers are offering the Navastar engines if you request them. I was told that Tiffin (I did not confirm the info) would install a Maxforce engine on their house built frame assembly. And some others are doing the same but haven't seen the literature.




Sponsored by:

Contents

Executive Summary

Fleets, diesel vehicle owners and
truckstops are soon going to be introduced
to a product that aims to help clean the air of
harmful pollutants and may hold the promise
of increasing fuel mileage. Beginning in
2010, most new diesel-burning vehicles will
be outfitted with a pre-exhaust treatment
system that requires regular replenishment
by a specially prepared liquid called Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF).
As this informational paper will describe,
DEF is derived from urea and requires
special dispensing equipment, employee
training and certification processes to
maintain purity. A full discussion of these
handling requirements will be accompanied
by details on how DEF will make its way to
market and projections of its future demand.
Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid

Handling, Storage & Dispensing

Although urea is a widely produced chemical compound used
for years by the agriculture industry to infuse nitrogen into soil, the
term “diesel exhaust fluid” (DEF), a specific composition of urea for
application in transportation, only recently entered the lexicon of the
U.S. fleet industry with the advent of a particular type of clean exhaust
system called Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
Since 2006, DEF (known as AdBlue in Europe) has been a
familiar product in Europe where strict limits on the amount of air
pollutants permitted from diesel exhaust have been in place longer
than in the U.S.
DEF will be required in most 2010 diesel vehicles in order to
replenish the clean exhaust systems using SCR. Because these
systems are sensitive and the material must remain pure, quality and
training are key concerns for anyone marketing or handling DEF.
Distribution networks and certification systems are being
established to meet the anticipated need for quality DEF through
truckstops and retail outlets and to accommodate a wide variety of
dispensing options.
This White Paper will provide a complete picture of DEF’s
history, the political background that’s driving demand, how it is
produced, distributed, safely handled, stored, dispensed and likely to
be priced. And it’ll indicate the future of DEF in the U.S., projecting
future demand for the product and characterizing its role in improving
fuel mileage in fleets and helping to clean the air.
A Service of

OPIS White Papers

whitepapers.opisnet.com

© 2009 OPIS

Chapter 1-Policy Drivers..................... 2-3
Chapter 2-The European Experience... 4
Chapter 3-Production........................... 4
Chapter 4-Quality................................. 5-7
Chapter 5-Storage Challenges.............. 7
Chapter 6-Distribution......................... 8
Chapter 7-Dispensing........................... 9-10
Chapter 8-Retailing.............................. 11-12
About the Sponsors.............................. 13
Chapter 1-Policy Drivers

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 2

Clean Air Act

EPA’s mission is to protect human health
and the environment. To achieve this mission,
EPA implements a variety of programs
under the Clean Air Act that focus on:
* reducing outdoor, or ambient,
concentrations of air pollutants that
cause smog, haze, acid rain, and
other problems;
* reducing emissions of toxic air
pollutants that are known to, or are
suspected of, causing cancer or other
serious health effects; and
* phasing out production and use of
chemicals that destroy stratospheric
ozone.
These pollutants come from stationary
sources (like chemical plants, gas stations,
and powerplants) and mobile sources (like
cars, trucks, and planes).
In 1990, Congress passed and President George H.W. Bush
signed amendments to the Clean Air Act that directed the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate air pollutants from a
variety of industrial and commercial sources including motor vehicles.
Among the air pollutants EPA regulates under the authority
of the Clean Air Act are particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides
(NOx), byproducts of diesel exhaust that are precursors to smog. PM
has been linked to higher incidences of childhood asthma, among other
health hazards. The more sulfur motor fuel contains, the more PM it
produces when burned. NOx is produced during the process of hightemperature
combustion such as is present in a motor vehicle engine,
and can react with sunlight along with volatile organic compounds to
form smog.
The regulatory instrument by which EPA regulates PM under
CAA authority is the National Ambient Air Quality Standard
(NAAQS). It sets a PM maximum limit of 10 micrometers in air samples
taken over a 24-hour period (PM10). Five other criteria air contaminants
are regulated under NAAQS: lead, nitrogen oxide (NOx),
sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone. The agency set its Tier 2
tailpipe emissions limits on these six criteria contaminants.
In order to meet the PM10 and NOx limits on diesel exhaust
under Tier 2, EPA gave engine manufacturers the choice of which
technology platform they’d like to adopt in order to cut emissions of
PM and NOx from their vehicle exhaust systems. The three technologies
that emerged were SCR, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and
Lean NOx Trap. By fall of 2008, most had chosen SCR. Navistar/International
was the notable exception, choosing to instead deploy EGR
throughout its 2010 model trucks.
Chapter 1-Policy Drivers (cont.)

Exhaust treatment systems work hand in hand with reductions
in the amount of sulfur in diesel fuel to reduce PM and NOx. As of
2006, all diesel fuel for on-road use in the U.S. must contain no more
than 15 parts-per-million (ppm) of sulfur. This super-clean diesel fuel
is known as Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD).
Large-scale SCR systems are used at some coal-fired power
generation plants to reduce NOx emissions.
Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 3

Key Acronyms

DEF Diesel Exhaust Fluid
SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
CAA Clean Air Act
PM particulate matter
NOx Nitrogen Oxides
NAAQS National Ambient
Air Quality Standards
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
PPM parts per million
ULSD Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel
ISO International Organization of
Standardization
AUS aqueous urea solution
COA Certificate of Assurance
API American Petroleum Institute
Companies that have adopted SCR

and EGR.

SCR

Volvo
Detroit Diesel
Cummins
PACCAR
Mack
Daimler
Mercedes Benz
EGR

Navistar/International
Chapter 2-The European Experience

Chapter 3-Production

Starting in the early 1990s, the European Union (EU) member
states began to ratchet down the amount of sulfur allowed in motor
fuel and the amount of NOx that could be emitted from exhaust systems.
Adoption of pre-exhaust treatment systems such as SCR began
in 2006. As a result, operators of EU fleets have had a two-year headstart
using DEF to replenish their SCR systems.
In Europe, original equipment manufacturers use the trademark
term AdBlue to describe automotive-grade DEF.
Although initially AdBlue supply chain integration costs were
high, operational efficiencies quickly came into play and prices
became more economical.
Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 4

The U.S. and Canada are net importers of agricultural grade
urea, largely distributed by barge. However, DEF will largely be
sourced from domestic facilities which are already established in North
America. A single Anhydrous Ammonia/urea/DEF plant costs approximately
$2 billion to build from the ground up so it is unlikely that new
plants will be coming on line to supply the U.S. truck fleet.
Since product quality is paramount for DEF, production needs
to be close to its target market to cut down on aging and/or
contamination concerns.
To make DEF:
Step 1 - Producers start with natural gas as a feedstock.
Step 2 - They then synthesize that into ammonia and CO2,
“cracking” and reforming it just as refiners would gasoline or
diesel out of crude oil.
Step 3 - Ammonia is coupled with CO2 to form urea.
Step 4 - The urea is then blended with very pure, deionized water
to make a 32.5% solution of urea (the remainder is water).
Chapter 4-Quality

The DEF production process is done to ISO-22241 standards
and best produced under very strict protocols, such that automotivegrade
DEF certified product meets or exceeds the ISO-22241 standard.
Producers then issue a Certificate of Analysis (COA) that guarantees
the quality of the DEF down to the minutest detail. Without the
COA, the solution is only industrial-grade urea.
Certified laboratories will check for the DEF’s purity and concentration
and monitor all of the specific elements within the product
needed to maintain quality.
Two specific quality issues can arise unless the strictest guidelines
are adhered to:
• Purity – product impurities can detrimentally affect the after-treatment
systems’ performance and void vehicle warranty guarantees
due to premature catalyst deactivation and/or fouling of prefilters
and injector nozzles, to identify a few.
• Concentration – delivering the right amount of urea to the exhaust
stream is critical to ensure the vehicle meets the tailpipe emissions
target required by EPA’s Tier 2 standards.
Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 5

Chapter 4-Quality (cont.)

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 6

The ISO-22241 specification is very strict and rules out the use
of agricultural and industrial grade urea as a substitute for DEF. Also,
the presence of formaldehyde found in most urea renders it unfit for
DEF production.
ISO-22241 also governs the integrity of DEF through the supply
chain. Purity and concentration must be maintained to the vehicle
and through the dispensing equipment, storage and handling, including
any small packaging for DEF. Supply-chain partners must undergo a
rigorous process to handle the fluid properly.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) will certify DEF and
will provide labels for DEF containers indicating the product is certified.
Those labels are being drafted by the SCR Stakeholders Group.
Certification is likely to include some quality assurance training for
supply chain partners including retailers. Samples can be pulled
anywhere in the supply chain to ensure DEF with the API label meets
the stringent quality requirements.
Contrary to some beliefs, DEF is not an additive, and is not
mixed with diesel fuel. In a vehicle outfitted with an SCR system, DEF
has a separate on-board tank (6-10 gallons on light-duty vehicles;
10-30 gallons on heavy-duty vehicles).
From its storage tank, DEF is pumped through a filter and
injector and then, into the exhaust stream. Injectors are very sensitive,
making purity extremely important, as any un-dissolved material may
clog filters or injectors. Additionally, dissolved material can result in
premature SCR catalyst failure.
Filters in the SCR system must function for at least a minimum
amount of time in order to meet EPA’s Tier 2 specifications. Premature
failure will activate the on-board vehicle diagnostics systems,
dramatically reducing vehicle performance.
Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 7

Sensors in DEF tanks will notify the driver if volume is low or
if the product concentration is not of good quality. Another sensor will
indicate if the NOx level in the tailpipe exhaust is too high. These
sensors will need to be maintained by fleet owners.
In the aftertreatment system, the heat from the exhaust hydrolyzes
the urea into two components: anhydrous ammonia and CO2.
This gas mixture of ammonia and NOx passes across the catalyst and
reduces them to elemental nitrogen and water, harmless since air is
composed of 78% elemental nitrogen. The additional CO2 emitted due
to urea decomposition is offset by enhanced fuel economy. A gallon of
diesel emits 10 times more CO2 than a gallon of DEF.
Chapter 4-Quality (cont.)

Chapter 5-Storage Challenges

A key specification in the ISO-22241 standard is the DEF
product’s urea concentration.
To ensure product stability, DEF producers, buyers, retailers
and users should store the fluid at temperatures between 12°F-86°F
(10°C-30°C). Doing so ensures a DEF shelf-life of at least one (1)
year. Storage temperatures higher than 86°F will detrimentally affect
urea concentration and below 12 ° F, DEF will begin to crystallize.
Both of these circumstances could render the product out of specification
and unfit for sale.
It is generally accepted that DEF will have a 1-year shelf-life
if stored between 86°F (30°C) and 12° F (-11 ° C). If it is stored at
temperatures above 86°F (30°C), the shelf-life will be reduced.
Chapter 6-Distribution

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 8

DEF will at least initially come into the fleet marketplace
through truckstops along interstate routes and through truck terminals.
Although DEF production is centered East of the Rockies,
there are plans to transload DEF by rail to the West Coast as needed.
Eventually, product could be transported in higher concentrations and
then diluted in regions that are farther away from production facilities
if quality can be maintained.
Urea-based reductants are already being sold and distributed
across North America, for NOx reductions in stationary SCR applications.
A key to distribution across the country will be the movement of
urea products to terminal locations in most metropolitan cities. Like in
Europe, existing, large chemical distribution facilities will act as these
terminal locations.
Facilities already exist which are ISO certified, have
massive liquid storage capacity, blending, rail, and their own fleet of
tanker trucks. Urea products for other markets are already being distributed
through these facilities.
Fuel oil distributors will likely vend DEF in bulk tanker and
mini-bulk quantities. The 275-gallon tote can be put into a “cupboard”
at a fuel island and hooked to a dispensing pump for retail at service
locations. Major pump equipment manufacturers have developed
pump-island DEF dispensers.
The primary distribution point will be chemical distribution
companies which will provide DEF in bulk tanker and mini-bulk quantities.
This is the model in Europe where chemical distributors have
compatible assets such as stainless tankers. Fuel oil distributors will
supplement the distribution chain in select markets and geographical
areas.
Chapter 7-Dispensing

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 9

Different pack sizes and configurations are being designed and
range from small bottles, to totes and drums to bulk dispensers. Typical
configurations include 275-gallon totes, 55-gallon drums, 2.5 gallon
bottles, 2.0-gallon bottles and 1-gallon bottles. High-density polyethylene
can be used in bottle packages but larger containers should be
stainless steel or other ISO 22241-approved materials in order to avoid
contamination.
Engine makers plan to dose DEF at a rate of 2%, or 2-gallons
of DEF for every 100-gallons of diesel fuel. A heavy-duty truck with
an average fuel economy of 6 MPG could travel 600 miles on that
same 100-gallons of diesel fuel. That same trip would therefore only
take around 2-gallons of DEF. That would give the truck a reasonable
number of miles to get to a larger DEF dispensing facility to refill.
Fuel oil distributors will likely vend DEF in bulk tanker and
mini-bulk quantities. The 275-gallon tote and mini-bulk tanks (up to
a few thousand gallons) can be put into a “cupboard” at a fuel island
and hooked to a dispensing pump for retail at service locations. Major
pump equipment manufacturers have developed pump-island DEF
dispensers.
These can be hooked up to either above-ground or belowground
DEF tanks. However, the product does need to be heated if it
is stored above-ground because it will crystallize at 12°F (-11°C) or
about the same temperature as diesel.
Chapter 7-Dispensing (cont.)

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 10

For smaller locations and service bays, smaller dispensing
equipment may be appropriate. There will be stand-alone units of
1,000 to 2,000 gal for retail installation. That will be tied to the companies
POS (Point of Sale) technology, making the transaction part of the
overall sales experience.
This dispensing equipment may be in line with existing fuel
island or stand-alone units. This equipment will provide fueling from
diesel type dispensers, and special nozzles are being considered to
prevent the possibility of introducing DEF into the diesel tank.
Chapter 8-Retailing

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 11

Potential markets for DEF include heavy and medium-duty
vehicles as well as light-duty vehicles. For heavy-duty and mediumduty
vehicles, DEF demand will be filled like fuel is: through bulk
dispensers. A typical vehicle in this class should consume more than
500 gal/year and about 90-95% of DEF sales will come from this class
of vehicle. On-board DEF tanks typically have a volume of 20-30 gallons.
Light-duty vehicles will have demand filled like a lubricant: in
gallon packs. A typical vehicle would consume about nine gal/year and
the market-share of this class is likely to range from 5-10%. Service
intervals may be synchronized with oil change cycles. Vehicle owners
can add their own DEF much like they would top off their windshield
wiper fluid.
Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard increases may drive
more light-duty vehicle manufacturers to pursue a more aggressive
SCR rollout in order to take advantage of the greater fuel economy
offered by these clean exhaust systems.
Off-highway vehicles will need to meet EPA Tier 2 tailpipe
emission standards by 2014. Additional demand from retrofitted diesel
vehicles is expected to emerge as well.
Annual DEF volumes could reach more than 725 million gallons
by 2015 at current fleet turnover rates, according to the Engine
Manufacturers Association. It conducted a survey based on input from
all major engine makers based on engine sales forecasts, vehicle miles
traveled and dosing rates (2-4% of diesel fuel volumes).
North American
SCR Stakeholders Group
Participating Organizations
August 2008

AGCO Parts Division
Agriliance
Agrium
AirBlueFluids, Inc.
Alliance
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
AluMag Automotive LLC
American Automobile Association
American Petroleum Institute
American Trucking Associations (ATA)
Ashland/Valvoline
Association of International Automobile
Manufacturers
Automotive Aftermarket Industry
Association
Automotive Association of America (AAA)
Balcrank Products Inc.
Benecor
Blue1
BMW of North America, Inc.
BP America
Brenntag North America
Caterpillar
Cervantes-Delgado Inc.
CF Industries Inc.
Chevron
Chrysler LLC
CHS Inc
Clean Emission Fluids
Colonial Chemical
ConocoPhillips
Cummins Inc.
Daimler AG
Daimler Trucks North America
Dale Kardos & Associates, LLC
Detroit Diesel Corporation
Diesel Technology Forum
Dresser Wayne
Dureal
Dyno Nobel
Engine Manufacturers Association
Excelda
ExxonMobil
EZ Fuel
(Cont. on next page)
Chapter 8-Retailing (cont.)

Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 12

Essentially, 80% of diesel vehicle production in 2010 will
feature SCR technology, requiring DEF.
DEF prices are likely to be above $3/gal at least initially until
operational efficiencies in the supply chain and increased volume of
DEF product moved begin to have an effect on price. Smaller containers
may cost more if they are sold as convenience items.
Eventually, access should become as easy as fuel or motor oil is today.
Engine makers have projected fuel economy increases of about
3% but depending on DEF price and dosing rates, that economic
benefit might be mitigated in real-world application.
However, the environmental benefits of SCR systems using
DEF are accepted as a state-of-the-art technology response to EPA’s
clean air regulations and ensure demand for quality DEF is here to
stay.
Flying J Travel Plazas
Ford Motor Company
Freightliner Trucks
Garden State Analytix
General Motors Corporation
Gilbarco Veeder-Root, Inc.
Greenchem-Adblue
Hino Motors Ltd.
Hino Motors Sales, U.S.A, Inc.
Honda
Honda North America Inc
Industrial Solution Services, Inc.
Integer Research
North American SCR Stakeholders 3
International Truck & Engine Co.
Isuzu Manufacturing Services
of America, Inc.
Isuzu Motors Limited
John Deere
Kelley Drye Collier Shannon
(representing PMAA)
Koch Industries
Koch Nitrogen - Industrial Marketing
Kruse KG
Love’s Travel Stops and Country Stores
Mack Trucks, Inc.
Magna Steyr
Manufacturers of Emission Controls
Association
Mazda North American Operations
Mercedes-Benz USA (Cars)
Mitsubishi Motors R&D of America
Mitsui Mining & Smelting
National Association of Convenience
Stores
National Association of Truck Stop
Owners
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- US DOE Office of Energy
Efficiency & Renewable Energy
New England Fuel Institute
Nissan
Oscar W. Larson Company
PACCAR
Petroleum Marketers of America
Association (PMAA)
Petro Stopping Centers
Pilot Travel Centers
Porsche Cars of North America, Inc.
Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc.
Quixote Group
Rehau
Renault
Robert Bosch LLC
R. W. Mercer Company
Ryder System, Inc.
Shell
Shell Europe
Shell Lubricants - Fast Lubes
SKF
Society of Independent Gas
Marketers of America (SIGMA)
Subaru of America, Inc.
Terra Industries Inc.
The Andersons, Inc.
The Fertilizer Institute
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.
Toyota Technical Center USA, Inc.
Travel Centers of America
Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA)
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Valvoline
Venture Point Research
Volkswagen of America, Inc.
Volvo Mack
Volvo Powertrain
Volvo Trucks North America
Yara International ASA
Successful Urea/Diesel Exhaust Fluid Handling, Storage & Dispensing White Paper Page 13

About Brenntag

Brenntag recorded global 2007 sales of EUR 6.7 billion (USD 9.1 billion). Today the company operates in excess
of 300 locations with more than 11,000 people in 64 countries. In keeping with the company’s strong
position in world markets, Brenntag is committed to providing value to its customers and suppliers through
superior supply chain logistics, single sourcing, technical assistance and other value added services.
Brenntag offers an unrivalled, extensive and state-of-the-art distribution network for industrial and specialty
chemicals to its suppliers and customers alike throughout the United States and the world.
Brenntag
Alan Smith, Manager, Business Development
248 760 7912
Asmith@brenntag.com
About Southern Pump & Tank Company

Southern Pump & Tank Company began operations in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1935 as a distributor and
installer of petroleum equipment. The company quickly expanded into other cities in North and South Carolina
and eventually Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Florida and Virginia. Recognizing the value of its franchise and
its dominant market share in petroleum handling equipment, the Company entered the industrial pump
distribution business in the late 1960’s concentrating in North and South Carolina and Eastern Tennessee.
With the new millennium, Southern Pump & Tank continued its leadership position in liquid handling and
completing a dominant offering of quality products, turnkey services, and exceptionally experienced people.
For over 70 years we have provided a complete assortment of equipment and services for the handling of
petroleum products. We offer turnkey development for any petroleum project, including retail outlets and
wholesale bulk plants. Our unmatched service will keep you pumping long after.
Southern Pump and Tank Company
Steve Childers, General Manager
704 596 4373
Steve.childers@southernpump.com
About Terra Environmental Technologies (TET)

Terra Industries Inc. (NYSE: TRA), with 2007 revenues of $2.4 billion, is a leading international producer of
nitrogen products. Terra Industries Inc. formed TET in 2003 to provide products and services to customers using
nitrogen products to reduce NOx emissions from various sources, including power plants and in other environmental
processes such as water treatment plants. TET was incorporated in December 2007.
Terra Environmental Technologies
John Beumler, Manager, Account Development
712 293 4610
Jbeumler@terraindustries.com
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#16 CrazyCruzers

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Posted 05 September 2012 - 06:59 AM

A couple of items to note:

Every Pilot or Flying J will have DEF, but not every one has it at the pump. A box of DEF will run about $15 for 2.5 gallons, but pump delivery is (currently) under $3/gallon. The myPilot app (or the website www.pilotflyingj.com) will tell you which Pilot/Flying J has DEF at the pump and what the price is.

The DEF pumps are arranged for the 18-wheelers, with the tanks on the driver's side near the front. I have to go through the pump bays backwards in my Itasca, and I have to move it after fueling, because the DEF tank is in the rear on the passenger's side. (I like the idea of a two-gallon gas can for the DEF, but there's no place to store it. I feel a mod coming on!) I suppose that I could get DEF from the adjacent pump if they weren't too busy.

I was told (but I have not verified) that a running diesel engine will continue to run when the DEF tank goes empty, and the the engine will start two more times. This allows you to get to the filling station, and if that station has no DEF you can get to the next station. After that the engine is interlocked not to start. I don't know if it's true, and I don't intend to test it!

I'm getting about 500 miles per DEF gallon.
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Thom

#17 moisheh

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Posted 05 September 2012 - 11:53 AM

Herman Mullins: It was in the administration of the previous almighty when the new EPA rules were mandated.

Moisheh
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#18 LIMac

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Posted 07 October 2012 - 03:43 PM

Just traded an 05, 38', 28,000 lb Travel Supreme w/350 cat w/ turbo. Now have a 2013 40' HR 32,000lbs w/350 MaxForce 10 w/turbo. TS averaged 7mpg towing an 11 Edge. Have 1100 miles on the HR and averaging just under 9 mpg towing the same Edge. Power fells pretty much the same, even with higher load.
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#19 HuntsvilleBob

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Posted 11 May 2013 - 09:50 AM

I happened to take the Tiffin Factory tour yesterday. They use a MaxForce7 in the Allegro Breeze (28 and 32') which is mounted on their own chassis. Their larger models use Cummings 340HP and up with DEF. The tanks are on the passenger side which makes fill at Flying J problematic since the DEF dispenser is on the driver side when pulling in. They are trying to redesign this but the 2013s all have it on the wrong side.

I plan to carry a fresh DEF sealed container and keep the DEF in the coach reasonably fresh. It gets really hot in the summer here. Now if I can figure how to add a drain to the tank....
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#20 cmarq

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Posted 11 May 2013 - 05:33 PM

DEF is available at Walmarts in CT


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